To the Councel of the Iewes, Iudas by occasion of Marie Magdalens ointment, doth sel him for litle. 17. After the Paschal lamb, 26. he giueth them that bread of life (promised Io. 6.) in a mysticak Sacrifice or Separation of his Body and Bloud. 31. And that night he is after his prayer 47. taken of the Iewes men, Iudas being their Captaine: and forsaken of the other eleuen for feare: 57. is falsely accused, and impiously condemned of the Iewes Councel, 67. and shamefully abused of them: 69. and thrise denied of Peter: Al, euen as the Scriptures and himself had often foretold.
1. The Passion according to S. Matthew in these two Chapters, is the Ghospel at Masse vpon Palme Sunday.
TENEBRE-wenesday. Mark 14,1.
Luke 22,1. AND it came to passe, when Iesvs had ended al these wordes, he said to his Disciples:
2. You know that after two dayes shal be Pasche, and the Sonne of man shal be deliuered to be crucified.
3. Then were gathered togeather the cheefe Priests and Ancients of the people into the court of the high Priest, who was called Caiphas:
4. and they consulted how they might by some wile apprehend Iesvs, and kil him.
5. But they said: Not on the festiual day, lest perhaps there might be a tumult among the people.
6. And Mark 14,3.
Iohn 12,3. when Iesvs was in Bethania in the house of Simon the Leper
7. there came to him a woman hauing an alabaster-boxe of pretious ointment, and powred it out vpon his head as he sate at the table.
8. And the Disciples seeing it, had indignation saying: Whereto is This waste.
Cost vpon Churches, Altares &c.
Cost bestowed vpon Christs body then aliue, being to the same not necessary, seemed to the Disciples lost and fruitles: so the like bestowed vpon the same body in the Sacrament, vpon Altars, or Churches, seemeth to the simple lost, or lesse meritorious, then if the same were bestowed vpon the poore. this waste?
9. For this might haue been sold for much, and giuen to the poore.
10. And Iesvs knowing it, said to them: Why doe you molest this woman? for she hath wrought a Good worke.
Releefe of the poore.
Cost bestowed for religion, deuotion, and signification, is a meritorious worke, and often more meritorious then to giue to the poore; though both be very good, and in some case the poore are to be preferred: yea *in certaine cases of necessity, the Church wil breake the very consecrated vessels and iewels of siluer, and gold, and bestow them in works of mercy. But we may remember very wel, and our Fathers knew it much better, that the poore were then best releeued, when most was bestowed vpon the Church.
*Ambr. l. 2. Off. c. 28. good worke vpon me.
11. For the poore you haue alwayes with you: but me Haue not.
Christ alwaies with vs in the B. Sacrament.
We haue him not in visible manner as he conuersed on the earth with his Disciples, needing releefe like other poore men; but we haue him after an other sort in the B. Sacrament, and yet haue him truly and really the self same body. Therfore he saith, they should not have him, because they should not so haue him, but after an other manner. As when he said Luc. 24. When I was with you, as though he were not then with them. you haue not alwayes.
12. For she in powring this ointment vpon my body hath done it to burie me.
13. Amen I say to you, wheresoeuer this Ghospel shal be preached in the whole world, that also which she hath done, Hereby we learne that the good workes of Saints are to be recorded and set forth to their honour in the Church after their death. Whereof rise their holy daies & Commemoration. shal be reported for a memorie of her.
14. Mark 14,10.
Luke 22,3. Then went one of the Twelue, which was called Iudas Iscarioth, to the cheefe Priests,
15. & said to them: What wil you giue me, and I wil deliuer him vnto you? But they appointed vnto him thirtie peeces of siluer.
16. And from thenceforth he sought opportunitie to betray him.
17. MAVNDY-thursday. And Mark 14,12.
Iohn 22,7. the first day of the Azymes the Disciples came to Iesvs saying: Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eate the Pasche?
18. But Iesvs said: Goe ye into the citie to a certaine man, and say to him: The Maister saith, my time is at hand, with thee doe I make the Pasche with my Disciples.
19. And the Disciples did as Iesvs appointed them, and they prepared the Pasche.
20. But when it was euen, he sate downe with his Twelue.
A wonderful mysterie in the institution of the B. Sacrament.
It must needs be a great mysterie that he was to worke in the institution of the new Sacrifice by the maruelous transmutation of bread and wine into his body and bloud: Whereas he admitted none (although many present in the citie) but the twelue Apostles, which were to haue the administration and consecration thereof by the Order of Priesthood, which also was there giuen them to that purpose. Whereas at the eating of the Paschal lamb al the familie was wont to be present. twelue Disciples.
21. And while they were eating, he said: Amen I say to you, that one of you shal betray me.
22. And they being very sad, began euery one to say: Is it I Lord?
23. But he answering said: Psa. 40,20. He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, he shal betray me.
24. The Sonne of man indeed goeth as it is written of him: but woe be to that man, by whom the Sonne of many shal be betrayed. It were good for him, if that man had not been borne.
25. And Iudas that betrayed him, answering said: Is it I Rabbi? He saith to him: Thou hast said.
26. And 1. Corinth. 11,14. whiles they were at supper, Iesvs He tooke bread.
The holy Eucharist is both a Sacrifice and a Sacrament.
Here at once is instituted, for the continuance of the external office of Christes eternal Priesthood according to the order of Melchisedech, both a Sacrifice, and a Sacrament, though the Scriptures giue neither of these names to this action, and our Aduersaries without al reason or religion accept in a sort the one, and vtterly deny the other. A Sacrifice, in that it is ordained to continue the memory of Christes death and oblation vpon the Crosse, and the application of the general vertue thereof to our particular necessities, by consecrating the seueral elements, not into Christes whole person as it was borne of the Virgin or now is in Heauen, but the bread into his body apart, as betrayed, broken, and giuen for vs, the wine into his bloud apart, as shed out of his body, for remission of sinnes, and dedication of the new Testament; which be conditions of his Person as he was in Sacrifice and Oblation. In which mystical and vnspeakable manner, he would have the Church to offer and Sacrifice him daily, and he in mysterie and Sacrament dyeth, though now not only in Heauen, but also in the Sacrament, he be indeed per Concomitantiam (as the Church calleth it; that is, by sequele of al his partes to each other) whole, aliue, and immortal. Which point because our aduersaries vnderstand not, *not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God, they blaspheme, and abuse the People to their damnation. It is also a Sacrament, in that it is ordained to be receaued into our bodies, and to feed the same to resurrection and immortality, and to giue grace and saluation to our soules, if we worthily receaue it.
*Mat. 22,29. tooke bread, and Blessed.
The blessing of Christ referred to the creatures and working an effect in them.
Our Aduersaries for the two wordes that are in Greeke and Latin, benedixit, and, gratias egit, he blessed, he gaue thanks, vse only the later, of purpose to signifie that Christ blessed not nor consecrated the bread and the wine, and so by that blessing wrought any effect vpon them, but gaue thankes only to his Father, as we doe in saying grace. But the truth is that the word εύλογειν, signifieth properly to blesse, and is referred to the thing that is blessed, as Luc. 9. of the fishes, εύλόγησεν αύτȣς, benedixit eis, he blessed them: and thereby wrought in them that wonderful multiplication.
So the blessing of God is alwayes affectual; and therfore here also he blessed the bread, and by that blessing with the wordes folowing, made it his body. Ambro. li. de his qui initi. myst. c. 9. Aug. ep. 59. ad Paulinum. Now whereas taking the cuppe it is said: he gaue thankes. We say that it is al one with blessing, and that he blessed the cup, as before the bread: as it is euident by these wordes of S. Paul, *Calix cui benedicimus, the cup which we blesse: and therfore he calleth it, Calicem benedictionis, the cup of blessing, vsing the same Greeke word that is spoken of the bread.
τὸν ἄρτον εὐχαριϛηϑέιτα.
But why is it then said here, he gaue thankes? because we translate the wordes faithfully as in the Greeke and the Latin, and because the sense is al one, as we are taught by S. Paul before alleaged, and by the Fathers, which cal this giuing of thankes ouer the cup or ouer the bread, the blessing therof. S. Iustin. In fin. 2. Apol. Panem Eucharistisatum. S. Irenee li. 4. c. 34. Panem in quo gratiæ actæ sunt. S. Cyprian de cœn. Do. Calix solenni benedictione sacratus. that is, The bread blessed by giuing thankes vpon it, The cup consecrated by solemne blessing.
*1. Corinth. 10,16. blessed, and brake: and he gaue to his Disciples, and said: Take ye, and eate: This is.
The bread and the wine be turned into the body and bloud of Christ by the same omnipotent power by which the world was made, and the Word was incarnate in the wombe of the Virgin. Damasc. li. 4 c. 14. Cypr. de Cœn. Domini. Amb. li. de myst. init. c. 9. THIS IS MY BODY. My body.
No figuratiue but a real presence.
He said not: This bread is a figure of my body; or, This wine, is a figure of my bloud, but, This is my body, and, This is my bloud. Damasc. li. 4 c. 14. Theophyl. in hunc locum. Conc. 2. Nic. act. 6, to. 4. eiusdem actionis in fine. When some fathers cal it a figure or signe, they meane the outward formes of bread and wine.
27. And taking the chalice, he gaue thankes: and gaue to them, saying: Drinke See the margent note Mark 12,23. ye al of this.
28. Bloud of the new Testament.
As the old Testament was dedicated with bloud in these words: This is the bloud of the Testament &c. Heb. 9. so here is the institution of the new Testament in Christs bloud, by these wordes: This is the bloud of the new Testament &c. Which is here mystically shed, and not only afterward vpon the Crosse:
ἐκχυννόμενον. κλώμενον. διδόμενον.
for the Greeke is the present tense in al the Euangelistes, and S. Paul: and likewise speaking of the body 1 Cor. 11. it is in the Greeke the present tense, and Luc. 22. and there also in the Latin. And the Heretikes them selues so put it in their translations. FOR THIS IS MY BLOVD OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, WHICH SHAL BE SHED FOR MANY VNTO REMISSION OF SINNES.
29. And I say to you, I wil not drinke henceforth of this Fruit of the vine.
The elements after consecration called bread & wine.
S. Luke putteth these words before he come to the consecration, whereby it seemeth that he speaketh of the wine of the Paschal lamb; and therfore nameth it, the fruit of the vine. But if he speake of the wine which was now his bloud, he nameth it notwithstanding wine, as S. Paul nameth the other bread, for three causes: First because it was so before: *as Eue is called Adams bone, and, **Aarons rod deuoured their rods. Wheras they were not now rods, but serpents. And: ***He tasted the water turned into wine. Whereas it was now wine and not water; and such like. Secondly, because it keepeth the formes of bread and wine, and things are called as they appeare, as when Raphael is called a yong man Tob. 5. and, Three men appeared to Abraham Gen. 18. Whereas they were three Angels. Thirdly, because Christ in this Sacrament is very true and principal bread and wine, feeding and refreshing us in body and soule to euerlasting life.
***Iohn 2. fruit of the vine, vntil that day when I shal drinke it with you new in the Kingdom of my Father.
30. THVRSDAY night. And an hymne being said, they went forth vnto Mount-oliuet.
31. The Nocturne of Matins in the Churches Seruice answereth to this night part of our Sauiours Passion, and so consequently the other Canonical houres to the rest. Then Iesvs saith to them: Al you shal be scandalized in me in this night. For it is written: Zac. 13,7. I wil strike the Pastor, and the sheep of the flock shal be dispersed.
32. But after I shal be risen againe, I wil goe before you into Galilee.
33. And Peter answering, said to him: Although al shal be scandalized in thee, I wil neuer be scandalized.
34. Iesvs said to him: Amen I say to thee, that in this night before the cock crow, thou shalt denie me thrise.
35. Iohn 13,38. Peter saith to him: Yea though I should die with thee, I wil not denie thee. Likewise also said al the Disciples.
36. Then Iesvs commeth with them into a village called Gethsemani: and he said to his Disciples: Sit you here til goe yonder, and pray.
37. And taking to him Peter and the two sonnes of Zebedee, he began to waxe sorowful and to be sad.
38. Then he saith to them: My soul is sorowful euen vnto death: stay here, and watch with me.
39. And being gone forward a litle, he fel vpon his face, praying, and saying: My Father, if it be possible, let this chalice passe from me. Neuerthelesse Not as I wil.
A perfect example of obedience and submitting our self and our willes to Gods wil and ordinance in al aduersity; and that we should desire nothing temporal, but vnder the condition of his holy pleasure and appointment. not as I wil, but as thou.
40. And he commeth to his Disciples, and findeth them sleeping, and he saith to Peter: Euen so? Could you not watch one houre with me?
41. Watch and pray.
Vigils and Nocturnes.
Hereof came Vigils and Nocturnes, that is, watching and praying in the night, commonly vsed in the Primitive Church of al Christians, as is plaine by *S. Cyprian and **S. Hierom; but afterward and until this day, specially of Religious Persons.
*De Orat. Do. nu. 15.
**Adu. Vigilant. ep. 53. Watch ye, & pray that ye enter not into tentation. The Spirit in deed is prompt, but the flesh weak.
42. Againe the second time he went, and prayed, saying: My Father, if this chalice may not passe, but I must drinke it, thy wil be done.
43. And he commeth againe, and findeth them sleeping, for their eyes were become heauy.
44. And learning them, he went againe: and he prayed the third time, saying the selfsame word.
45. Then he commeth to his Disciples, and saith to them: Sleepe ye now and take rest. Behold the houre approcheth, and the Sonne of man shal be betrayed into the hands of sinners.
46. Rise, let vs goe: behold he approcheth that shal betray me.
47. Iohn 18,3. As he yet spake, behold Iudas on the Twelue came, and with him a great multitude with swordes and clubs, sent from the cheefe Priests and the Ancients of the People.
48. And he that betrayed him, gaue a signe, saying: Whomsoeuer I shal kisse, that is he, hold him.
49. And forthwith comming to Iesvs, he said: Haile Rabbi. And he kissed him.
50. And Iesvs, said to him: Freind, wherto art thou come? Then they drew nere, and laid hands on Iesvs, and held him.
51. And behold one of them that were with Iesvs, stretching forth his hand, drew out a sword; and striking the seruant of the high Priest, cut of his eare.
52. Then Iesvs saith to him: Returne thy sword into his place: for al that take the sword shal perish with the sword.
53. Thinkest thou that I can not aske my Father, and he wil giue me presently more then twelue legions of Angels?
54. How then shal the scriptures be fulfilled, that so it must be done?
55. In that houre Iesvs said to the multitudes: You are come out as it were to a theefe with swords and clubs to apprehend me. I sate daily with you teaching in the temple, and you laid no hands on me.
56. And al this was done, that the scriptures of the Prophets might be fulfilled. Then the Disciples al leauing him, fled.
57. But they taking hold of Iesvs, led him to Caiphas the high Priest, where the Scribes and Ancients were assembled.
58. And Peter folowed him a farre off, euen to the court of the high Priest. And going in he sate with the seruants, that he might see the end.
59. And the cheefe Priests and the whole Councel sought false witnes against Iesvs, that they might put him to death:
60. and they found not, whereas many false witnesses has come in. And last of al there came two false witnesses;
61. and they said: Iohn 2,19. This man said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and after three dayes to reedifie it.
62. And the high Priest rising vp, said to him: Answerest thou nothing to the things which these doe testifie against thee?
63. But Iesvs held his peace. And the high Priest said to him: I adiure thee by the liuing God, that thou tel vs if thou be Christ the Sonne of God.
64. Iesvs saith to him: Thou hast said. Neuertheles I say to you, hereafter Dan. 7,13. you shal see the Sonne of man sitting on the right of the power of God, and comming in the clouds of Heauen.
65. Then the high Priest rent his garments, saying: He hath blasphemed, what need we witnesses any further? Behold, now you haue heard the blasphemie;
66. how thinke you? But they answering said: He is guilty of death.
67. Then they spit on his face, and buffeted him, & other smote his face with the palmes of their hands,
68. saying: Prophecie vnto vs O Christ; who is he that strook thee?
69. But Peter sate without in the court; and there came to him one Wench.
The vertue of the holy Ghost.
S. Gregorie declaring the difference of the Apostles before the receauing of the Holy Ghost and after, saith thus: Euen this very Pastour of the Church himself, at whose most sacred body we sit, how weake he was, the wench can tell you, but how strong he was after, his answer to the high Priest declareth, Act. 5. 29. We must obey God rather then men. Greg. ho. 20 Io. Euang. wench, saying: Thou also wast with Iesvs the Galilean.
70. But he denied before them al, saying: I wot not what thou sayest.
71. And as he went out of the gate, an other wench saw him, and she saith to them that were there: And this felow also was with Iesvs the Nazarite.
72. And againe he denied with an oth: That I know not the man.
73. And after a litle they came that stood by and said to Peter: Surely thou also art of them: for euen thy speach doth bewray thee.
74. Then he began To curse.
A goodly example and warning to mans infirmity, and to take heed of presumption, and to hang only vpon God in tentations. to curse and to sweare that he knew not the man. And incontinent the cock crew.
75. To this time the LAVDES do answer in the Churches Seruice. And Peter remembered the word of Iesvs which he had said: Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrise. And going forth, he Wept bitterly.
Peters teares and repentance.
S. Ambrose in his Hymne that the Church vseth at Laudes, speaking of this, saith: Hoc ipsa Petra ecclesia canente, culpam diluit. When the Cock crew, the Rock of the Church himself washed away his fault. S. August. 1. Retract. c. 21. wept bitterly.