Original Douay Rheims Bible (1582 & 1610)

The First Epistle of Saint Pavl to Timothee

How to behaue himself towardes yong & old. 3. To bestow the Churches oblations vpon the needy widowes, 9 and not to admit the said Churches widowes vnder threescore yeares old. 17 In distribution to respect wel the Priests that are painful: 19 & how in his Consistorie to heare accusations against Priests. 22. To be strait in examining before he giue Orders. To be chast, and to remit somewhat of his drinking water.
1. A Seniour rebuke not: but beseech as a father: yong men, as brethren:
2. old women, as mothers: yong women, as sisters, in al chastitie.
3. The Epistle vpon S. Monica's day. May. 4. And for holy widowes. Honour widowes, which are Widowes indeed.
Widowhood.
S. Ambrose calleth them vvidovves and desolate in deede, that might marie, but to make them selues better and more vvorthy of God, refuse mariage, vvhich they knovv to be but once blessed, imitating *holy Anne, vvho in fasting and praiers serued God night and day, neuer knovving but one husband. Such professed vvidovves then are to be honoured and succoured. Neither doth he speake onely of the Churches vvidovves (of vvhom specially aftervvard) but of al that by profession kept their vvidovvhod, exhorting them to passe their time in praier and fasting, v. 5. Vvhich vvas an honorable and holy state much vvritten of, and commended in the primitiue Church, namely by S. Ambrose and by S. Augustine, vvho vvrote bookes intitled thereof, and make it next to virginitie. Ambr. de viduis. August. de bono viduitatis.
* Ambr. in hunc loc.
Luc. c. 2, 37.
widowes indeed.
4. But if any widow haue children or nephews; let her learne first to rule her owne house, & to render mutual dutie to her parents. For this is acceptable before God.
5. But she that is a widow indeed and desolate, let her hope in God, and continue in obsecrations & Because of this continual prayer which standeth not with coniugal & carnal actes of matrimonie (as the Apostle signifieth 1. Cor. 7, 5.) therfore were these widowes to liue in the state of perpetual continencie. praiers night and day.
6. For she that is in deliciousnes, liuing is dead.
7. And this command that they be blamelesse.
8. But if any man haue not care of his owne and especially of his domesticals, He hath denied.
Not that by this or by any other deadly sinne (except incredulitie or doubtfulnes in beleefe) they lose their faith: but that their factes be not ansvverable to their faith and to Christian religion, vvhich prescribeth al such duties.
he hath denied the faith, and is worse then an infidel.
9. Let a widow be chosen.
Widowes called Diaconissæ, and their office.
Novv he speaketh more particularly and specially of such vvidovves as vvere nourished and found by the oblations of the faithful & the almes of the Church, and did vvithal some necessarie seruices about vvomen that vvere to be professed or baptized, for their instruction and addressing to that and other Sacraments, and also about the sicke and impotent: and vvithal sometimes they had charge of the Church goods or the disposition of them vnder the Deacons: in respect vvhereof they also and the like are called Diaconissæ. Eusebius li 6 c 35 reciteth out of Cornelius Epistle, that in the Church of Rome there is one Bishop, 40 Priests, sixe Deacons, seuen Subdeacons, Acoluthi 42, Exorcistes, Lectors, and Ostiarij 52, vvidovves together vvith the poore 150, al vvhich God nourisheth in his Church. See Act. Apost. c. 6. S. Chrysostom li. 3 de Sacerdotio propius finem. S. Epiphanius in hæresi 79 Collyridianorum. Novv then, vvhat maner of vvomen should be taken into the fellovvship of such as vvere found of the Church, he further declareth.
Let a widow be chosen of no lesse then three-score yeares, which hath been the The wife of one husband.
These widowes must haue had but one husband: wherof many Catholike conclusions are deduced.
If you vvould haue a plaine paterne of Heretical fraude, corruption, and adulteration of the natiue sense of Gods vvord, and an inuincible demonstration that these nevv Glosers haue their consciences seared and hartes obdurated, vvillingly peruerting the Scriptures against that vvhich they knovv is the meaning thereof, to the maintenance of their sectes: marke vvel their handling of this place about these vvidovves of the Church. S. Paul prescribeth such onely to be admitted as haue been the vviues of one husband, that is to say, once onely maried, not admitting any that hath been tvvise maried. By vvhich vvordes the Catholikes proue first, that the like phrase *vsed before of Bishops and Deacons, that they should be the husbands of one vvife, must needes signifie that they can not be tvvise maried, nor admitted to these and the like functions, if they vvere more then once maried before. Secondly, vve proue by this place against the Aduersaries, that the state of vvidovvhod is more vvorthy, honorable, decent, and pure in respect of the seruice of the Church, and more to be relieued of the reuenues thereof, then the state of maried folkes. and that not onely (as the Aduersaries perhaps may ansvver) for their greater necessitie, or more leisure, freedom, or expedition to serue, in that they be not combered vvith husband and houshold, but in respect of their vidual continencie, chastitie, and puritie. for els such as vvere vvidovves vvith intention and freedom to marie aftervvard, might haue been admitted by the Apostle, as vvel as those that vvere neuer to marie againe.
c. 3, 2.
Thirdly, vve proue that second mariage not onely after admission to the almes or seruice of the Church, but before also, is disagreable and a signe of incontinencie or more lust and fleshlines then is agreable or comely for any person belonging to the Church: and consequently, that the Apostle in the last chapter treating of the holy functions of Bishops, Priests, Deacons, and of the Churches refusing generally bigamos or tvvise maried persons, must needes much more meane that no man tvvise maried should be receiued to holy Orders: and further, that as none vvere admitted to be vvidovves of the Church, that euer intended to marie againe, so none should euer be receiued to minister the Sacraments (vvhich is a thing infinitely more, and requireth more puritie, and continencie, then the office or state of the said vvidovves,) that intended to marie againe. To receiue the body of Christ (saith S. Hierom in Apolog. pro lib. cont. Iouin. ep. 50. c. 6.) is a greater and holier thing then praier, and therfore Priests that must both continually pray and also be occupied about the receiuing or ministring the holy Sacrament daily, must liue continently.
Fourthly, vve proue that it is not vnlavvful to annexe, by precept or the parties promis, single life or chastitie to a vvhole state or order of the faithful, because the Apostle & the vvhole Church in his time ioyned to this state of the Churches vvidovves, perpetual continencie. Fifthly, vve proue hereby that to refuse and not to accept the tvvise maried or such as vvil not liue single, into the state of vvidovves or holy Orders, is not to condemne or forbid second mariage, or once & often marying, vvith the Manichees according to the doctrine of Diuels, as the Protestants (and before them the old condemned Iouinianistes) do blaspheme the Church. for then did S. Paul allovv and teach doctrine of Diuels, vvho refuseth a tvvise maried vvoman, and bindeth others by their entering into this state, neuer to marie againe: as no doubt he did the Cleargie men much more in the 3 chapter before. Thus loevve Catholikes conferre & conster the Scriptures, & for this meaning vve haue al the Doctors vvithout exception. Vvhat shift then haue the Heretikes here? for marie and remarie they must, let the Scriptures & al the Doctors in the vvorld say nay to it. In truth they do not expound the vvord of God, but flee from the euidence of it, some one vvay & some an other.
And of al other, their extremest and most shameful tergiuersation is, that the Apostle here forbiddet *not the admission of such vvidovves as haue been tvvise maried, but onely them that haue had tvvo husbands at once.
Beza vpon this place.
The Caluinists most absurd exposition of the Apostles wordes
vvhich vvas a very vnprobable and extorted exposition before, concerning Bishops and Deacons, c. 3. and (as S. Hierom saith ep. 83.) malo nodo malus cuneus: but here that an exception should be made onely against vvidovves that had had tvvo husbands together (vvhich vvas a thing neuer lavvful nor neuer heard of) that is a most intolerable impudencie, and a construction that neuer came to any vvise mans cogitation before: and yet these their fansies must be Gods vvord, and bigamus or bigamîa must against their old natures and vse of al vvriters, be al one vvith Polygamus and Polygamîa. They giue an example of such vvidovves, in vvomen diuorced iustly from their husbands in the old lavv. As though S. Paul here tooke order for the Ievves vvidovves onely, or that had been such a common case among the Ievves also, that the Apostle needed to take so careful order for it.
Their blasphemie against the plaine text.
finally, they let not to say that if the Apostle should be vnderstood to refuse a vvidovv tvvise maried at sundrie times, it vvere vnreasonable & iniurious to second mariages, vvhich haue no more indecencie or signe of incontinencie (say they) then the first. Thus bold they are vvith the Apostle and al antiquitie. Beza vpon this place.
wife of one husband,
10. hauing testimonie in good workes, if she haue brought vp her children, if she haue receiued to harbour, if she haue washed the Saints feet, if she haue ministred to them that suffer tribulation, if she haue followed euery good worke.
11. But the yonger widowes auoid. For when they shal be Wanton in Christ.
Vvidovves vvaxing vvarme, idle, and vvel fedde by the Church, lust after husbands, as also Apostate-Priests and Superintendents marie, specially after they haue gotten good Ecclesiastical liuings. Which is to waxe vvanton in Christ, or against Christ, κατὰ χϱιςοὑ. *The Greeke vvord signifieth to cast of the raines or bridle, that is, the bond or promis of continencie which they had put vpon them.
* κατατϱηνιᾶν
wanton in Christ, They wil.
There very wil to breake the vow of chastitie, is damnable.
In the chastitie of vvidovvhod or Virginitie (saith S. Augustine) the excellencie of a greater gift is sought for. Which being once desired, chosen, and offered to God by vovv, it is not onely damnable to enter aftervvard into mariage, but though it come not actually to mariage, onely to haue the vvil to marie is damnable. Aug. li. de bono viduit. cap. 9.
they wil marrie:
12. Hauing damnation.
It signifieth not blame, checke, or reprehension of men, as some to make the fault seeme lesse, vvould haue it: but *iudgement or eternal damnation, which is a heauy sentence. God graunt al maried Priests and Religious may consider their lamentable case. Vvhat a greuous sinne it is, see S. Ambrose ad virginem lapsam cap. 5 & 8.
* κϱῖμα
hauing damnation, because they haue made void Their first faith.
Breaking of their first faith, is (by the consent of al antiquitie) when they breake their vow of chastitie.
Al the auncient fathers that euer wrote commentaries vpon this Epistle, Greeke and Latin, as S. Chrysostom, Theodorete, Oecumenius, Theophylactus, Primasius, S. Ambrose, Ven. Bede, Haimo, Anselme, and the rest: also al others that by occasion vse this place, as the 4 Councel of Carthage ca. 104. and the 4 of Toleto c. 55. S. Athanasius li. de virginitate. S. Epiphanius hær. 48. S. Hierom cont. Iouinianum li. 1, c. 7. & in c. 44 Ezech. prope finem. S. Augustine in exceding many places: al these expound the Apostles vvordes of the vovv of Chastitie or the faith and promis made to Christ to liue continently. What is to breake their first faith? saith S. Augustine. They vovved, and performed not. In ps. 75. prope finem. Againe in an other place, They breake their first faith, that stand not in that vvhich they vovved. Li. de Sancta virgin. c. 33.
Why this vow is called faith or fidelitie.
Againe he and al the fathers vvith him in Carthage Councel before named: If any vvidovves, how yong so euer they vvere left of their husband deceased, haue vovved them selues to God, left their laical habite, and vnder the testimonie of the Bishop and Church haue appeared in religious vveede, and aftervvard goe any more to secular mariage, according to the Apostles sentence they shal be damned, because they vvere so bold to make void the faith or promis of Chastitie which they vovved to our Lord. So saith he and 215 fathers moe in that Councel.
And this promis of chastitie is called, faith, because the fidelitie betvvixt maried persons is ordinarily called of holy writers, faith: and the vovv of chastitie made to God, ioyneth him & the persons so vovving, as it vvere in mariage, so farre, that if the said persons breake promis, they are counted and called in the last alleaged Councel, Gods adulterers. In the 3 to the Romanes also and often els vvhere, faith is taken for promis or fidelitie. And that it is so taken here, the vvordes irritum facere (to frustrate and make void) do proue. for that terme is commonly vsed in matter of vovv, promis, or compacte. Gen. 17. Num. 30.
Why the first faith.
This promis is called here prima fides (the first faith) in respect of the later promis vvhich vovvbreakers make to them vvith vvhom they pretend to marrie. So saith S. Augustine li. de bono viduit. c. 8. & 9. and Innocentius 1 ep. 2. cap. 13. to. 1. Conc. And this is the onely natiue, euident, and agreable sense to the circumstance of the letter.
The heretikes exposition of this first faith, impossible and against the text.
And the vaine euasion of the Heretikes to saue the Apostate-Monkes, Friers, Nunnes, and Priests from damnation for their pretended mariages, is friuolous: to vvit, that first faith here signifieth the faith of Baptisme or Christian beleefe, & not the promis or vovv of Chastitie. But vve aske them if this faith of Baptisme be broken by mariage or no. For the text is plaine that by intending to marie, they breake their faith, and by breaking their faith they be damned, if they die vvithout repentance. In truth vvhich vvay so euer they writhe them selues to defend their sacrilege or pretended mariages, they lose their labour and struggle against their ovvne conscience and plaine Scripture.
their first faith.
13. And withal idle also they learne to goe about from house to house: not only idle, but also ful of words & curious, speaking things which they ought not.
14. I wil the yonger.
S. Paul meaneth not that widowes professed should marrie.
He speaketh of such yong ones as vvere yet free. For such as had already made vovv, neither could they vvithout damnation marie, were they yong or old, nor he vvithout sinne commaund or counsel them to it. Neither (as S. Hierom proueth to *Gerontia, and S. Chrysostom vpon this place) doth he precisely commaund or counsel the yong ones that vvere free, to marie, or absolutely forbid them to vovv chastitie: God forbid, say they. But his speach conteineth onely a vvise admonition to the frailer sort, that it vvere farre better for them not to haue vowed at all, but to haue maried againe, then to haue fallen to aduoutrie and Apostasie after profession.
othervvise Ageruchia ep. 11.
It is better for the frailer sort, that are in danger of falling, to marie rather then to vow.
Vvhich is no more but to preferre second mariage before fornication: and a good warning, that they vvhich are to professe, looke wel vvhat they do. S. Paules experience of the fall of some yong ones to mariage, caused him to giue this admonition here: as also that before, that none should be receiued to the Churches almes vnder threescore yeres of age. Not forbidding the Church for euer, to accept any vovves of vvidowes or virgins til that age, as the Heretikes falsely affirme: but shewing vvhat vvas meete for that time and the beginning of Christianitie, vvhen as yet there vvere no Monasteries builded, no prescript rule, no exact order of obedience to Superiors: but the professed (as S. Paul here noteth) coursed & wandered vp and downe idly, as novv our professed virgins or Nunnes do not, neither can do. Of vvhom therfore, vvhere discipline is obserued, there is no cause of such danger. Besides that vvidowes hauing had the vse of carnal copulation before, are more dangerously tempted, then virgins that are brought vp from their tender age in pietie and haue no experience of such pleasures.
Yong women may be professed and taken into religion.
See S. Ambrose li. de viduis, prouing by the example of holy Anna, vvho liued a vvidow euen from her youth til 80 yeres of age, in fasting and praying night and day, that the Apostle doth not here without exception forbid al yong vvidowes to vow, yea he esteemeth that profession in the yonger women much more laudable, glorious, and meritorious. See his booke de Viduis in initio.
I wil therfore the yonger to marrie, to bring forth children, to be house-wiues: to giue no occasion to the aduersarie for the speake euil.
15. For now certaine are turned back After Satan.
To marrie after the vow of Chastitie, is to goe after Satan.
Vve may here learne, that for those to marie vvhich are professed, is to turne backe after Satan. For he speaketh of such as vvere maried contrarie to their vow. And herevpon vve call the Religious that marie (as Luther, Bucer, Peter martyr and the rest) Apostataes. More vve learne, that such yong ones haue no excuse of their age, or that they be vehemently tempted and burne in their concupiscences, or that they haue not the gift of Chastitie. For notvvithstanding al these excuses, these yong professed vvidowes if they marie, go backvvard after Satan, and be Apostataes, & damned, except they repent. For as for the Apostles vvordes to the Corinthians, It is better to marie then to burne, Vve haue before declared out of the fathers, and here vve adde, that it pertaineth onely to persons that be free and haue not vowed to the contrarie. as S. Ambrose li. ad virg. laps. c. 5. S. Augustine de bono vid. c. 8. and S. Hierom li. 1. cont. Iouin. c. 7. expound it.
1. Cor. 7.
The heretikes only remedie against concupiscenceis marriage.
The Heretikes of our time thinke there is no remedie for fornication or burning, but mariage. and so did S. Augustine vvhen he was yet a Manichee. Putabam me miserum & c. I thought (saith he li. 6. Confes. c. 11.) that I should be an vnhappie and miserable man if I should lacke the companie of a vvoman, and the medicine of thy mercie to heale the same infirmitie I thought not vpon, because I had not tried it: and I imagined that continencie vvas in a mans ovvne povver and libertie, vvhich in my self I did not feele: being so foolish not to vnderstand that no man can be continent vnles thou giue it. Verely thou vvouldest giue it, if vvith invvard mourning I vvould knocke at thy eares, and vvith sound faith vvould cast my care vpon thee.
The vow of chastitie lawful, possible to be kept, more grateful to God.
By al vvhich you may easily proue, that chastitie is a thing that may lavvfully be vowed, that it is not impossible to be fulfilled by praier, fasting, and chastisement of mens concupiscence, that it is a thing more grateful to God then the condition of maried persons: for els it should not be required either in the Cleargie or in the Religious.
Iouinians heresie in this point, condemned of old, is called of the Protestants, Gods word.
finally, that it is most abominable to persuade the poore virgins or other professed to such sacrilegious vvedlocke, which S. Augustine auoucheth to be vvorse then aduoutrie, de bon. vidu. c. 4. 11. Iouinian vvas the first that euer made mariage equal vvith virginitie or chast life, for vvhich he vvas condemned of heresie. Aug. in argumento li. de bono Coniugali. De pec. merit. li. 3. c. 7. Li. de hæres. har. 82. He vvas the first that persuaded professed virgins to marie, which S. Augustine saith vvas so clerely and vvithout question vvicked, that it could neuer infoct any Priest, but certaine miserable Nunnes. Yea for this strange persuasion he calleth Iouinian a monster, saying of him thus Li. 2. Retract. cap. 22. The holy Church that is there (at Rome) most faithfully and stoutly resisted this monster. S. Hierom calleth the said Heretike and his complices, Christian epicures. li 2 cont. Iouin. c. 19. See S. Ambrose ep. 82 ad vercellensem episcopum in initio. But vvhat vvould these holy doctors haue said, if they had liued in our doleful time, vvhen the Protestants go quite avvay vvith this vvickednes, and call it Gods vvord?
after Satan.
16. If any faithful man haue widowes, let him minister to them, and let not the Church be burdned: that there may be sufficient for them that are widowes indeed.
17. The Priests that rule wel, let them be esteemed Double honour & liuelihood due to good Priests. worthie of double honour: especially they that labour In word and doctrine.
Many good and worthie Bishops, that haue not the guift of preaching and teaching.
Such Priests specially and Prelates are vvorthy of double, that is, of the more ample honour, that are able to preach and teach, and do take paines therein. Vvhere vve may note, that al good Bishops or Priests in those daies vvere not so vvel able to teach as some others and yet for the ministerie of the Sacraments, and for vvisedom and gouernement, vvere not vnmeete to be Bishops and Pastors. for though it be one high commendation in a Prelate, to be able to teach, as the Apostle before noted: yet al can not haue the like grace therein, and it is often recompensed by other singular giftes no lesse necessarie. S. Augustine laboured in vvord and doctrine, Alipius and Valerius vvere good Bishops, and yet had not that gift. Possid. in vit. Aug. c. 5. And some times and countries require preachers more then other. Al vvhich vve note, to discouer the pride of Heretikes, that contemne some of the Catholike Priests or Bishops, pretending that they can not preach as they do, vvith meretricious and painted eloquence.
in the word and doctrine.
18. For the Scripture saith: Deut. 25.
1. Cor, 9.
Thou shalt not moosel the mouth to the oxe that treadeth out the corne; and, Mt. 10,10. The worke-man is worthie of his hire.
19. Here the Apostle wil not haue euery light fellow to be heard against a Priest. So S. Aug. for the like reuerence of priesthood, admonisheth Pancarius that in no wise he admit any testimonies or accuations of Heretikes against a Catholike Priest. ep. 212. Against a Priest receiue not accusation, but vnder two or three witnesses.
20. Them that sinne, reproue before al: that the rest also may haue feare.
21. I testifie before God and Christ Iesvs, and the elect Angels, that thou keep these things without preiudice, doing nothing by delcining to the one part.
22. Impose hands on no man Bishops must haue great care that they giue not Orders to any that is not wel tried for his faith, learning, and good behauiour. lighly, neither doe thou communicate with other mens sinnes. Keep thy self chast.
23. Drinke not yet Water.
You see hovv lavvful and hovv holy a thing it is, to fast from some meates or drinkes, either certaine daies, or alvvaies, as this B. Bishop Timothee did: vvho vvas hardly induced by the Apostle to drinke a litle vvine vvith his vvater in respect of his infirmities. And marke vvithal, vvhat a calumnious and stale cauillation it is, that to abstaine from certaine meates and drinkes for punishment of the body or deuotion, is to condemne Gods creatures. See an homilie of S. Chrysostom vpon these vvordes, to. 5.
water; but vse a litle wine for thy stomake, and thy often infirmities.
24. Certaine mens sinnes be manifest, going before to iudgement: and certaine men also they follow.
25. In like manner also good deeds be manifest, and they that are otherwise, can not be hid.