He prophecieth that certaine should depart from the Catholike faith, willing Timothee therfore
to inculcate to the people those articles of the said faith. 7. Item to exercise himself in
spiritual exercise, 12. to get authoritie by example of good life, 13. to studie, to teach, to
increase in the grace giuen him by holy Orders.
1. 2. Tim. 3
3. Pet. 3.
Iude v. 18. AND the Spirit manifestly saith that in the last times certaine Shal depart.
Al Heretikes are Apostates from the faith.
It is the proper description of Heretikes, to forsake their former faith, and to be Apostataes, as the Greeke vvord importeth: to giue care to particular spirites of error & deception, rather then to the Spirit of Christ in his Church, to folovv in hypocrisie and shevv of vertue the pernicious doctrine of Diuels, vvho are the suggesters and prompters of al Sectes, and are lying spirites in the mouthes of al Heretikes and false preachers: men that haue put their conscience to silence and made it sensles to the holy Churches admonition: the Apostle noting *once before also in this same Epistle, that Heretikes haue no conscience, vvhich is the cause both of their fall and of their obduration in heresie.
* cap. 1,19. shal depart from the faith attending to spirits of errour, and doctrines of diuels,
2. speaking lies in hypocrisie, and hauing their conscience seared,
3. Forbidding to marrie.
The old Heresies against matrimonie.
He speaketh (saith S. Chrysostom) of the Manichees, Encratites, and Marcionistes. ho. 12 in. 1 Tim. S Ambrose vpon this place, addeth to these the Patritians also. S. Irenæus li. 1 c. 30. S. Epiphanius hær. 45. 26. 61. 30. S. Hierom 1 cont. louin. c. 1. & ep. 50 c. 1 & 3. S. Augustine hær. 25. 40. and generally al antiquitie affirme the same both of them, and also of the Heretikes called Apostolici, Ebionitæ, and the like. Their heresie about mariage vvas, that to marrie or to vse the act of matrimonie, is of Satan, as S. Irenæus vvitnesseth li. 1 c. 22. and that the distinction of male and femal and the creation of man and vvoman for generation, came of an il God. They taught their hearers, *saith S. Augustine, that if they did vse vvomen, they should in any vvise prouide that they might not conceiue or beare children. Clemens Alexandrinus (li. 3. Strom. in principio) vvriteth, that such admit no mariage nor procreation of children, lest they should bring into the vvorld creatures to suffer miserie and mortalitie. And this is the damnable opinion concerning mariage, noted here by the Apostle.
* Aug. hær. 46.
The old Heresie about abstinence from meats.
For the second point consisting in the prohibition of meates or vse of certaine creatures made to be eaten, the said Heretikes or diuers of them (for they vvere not al of one sect touching these points) taught, that men might not eate certaine sortes of meates, specially of beastes and liuing creatures, for that they vvere not made (say they) of the good God, but of the euil. And vvine they called the gall of the Prince of darkenes, and not to be drunke at al, and the Vine vvhereof it came, to be of the Diuels creation. And diuers other creatures they condemned as things by nature and creation polluted and abominable. August. hær. Manich. 46. & hær. 25. Tatian. & toto libro de mor. Manich. to. 1. Lo these vvere the Heretikes and their heresies vvhich S. Paul here prophecieth of, that forbid mariage and meates as you haue heard, for vvhich they and their folovvers vvere condemned in diuers Councels.
The Catholikes impudently charged with the said old heresies.
Is it not novv an intolerable impudencie of the Protestants, vvho for a smal similitude of vvordes in the eares of the simple, apply this text to the fastes of the Church, and the chastitie of Priests and Religious?
Abstinence from certaine meats is no condemnation of the meats.
As though either by appointing or vsing some daies of abstinence from certaine meates, the Church or any Catholike man condemned the said meates, vnles the Rechabites Hierom. 35. or the Nazarites Num. 6. or the Niniuites Ion. 3. or Moyses Exod. 34. or Elias 3 Reg. 19. or holy Anna the vvidow Luc. 2 or Iohn Baptist Mat. 3 & 9. or Christ him self Mt. 4. commending, vsing, and folovving a prescript number of fasting daies, or God him self that in the very beginning, in Paradise, prescribed abstinence from the fruite of one certaine tree, and after appointed so many fastes in the Lavv, vnles he therfore, condemned his ovvne creatures, & the rest, those creatures from vvhich they abstained.
Diuers good causes of abstinence.
No, there be many good and lavvful causes to forbid some or to abstaine from some meates: as, for obedience, as in Paradise: for signification, as the Ievves: for that they haue been offered to Idols, as in the Epistle to the Corinthians: for chastening the bodie and penance, for health also: and onely those causes are vnlavvful for vvhich the Manichees and other Heretikes abstained.
Forbidding certaine persons to marrie is no condemnation of matrimonie.
Concerning mariage likewise, they may as vvel charge God or the Church for forbidding the father to marrie the daughter, or the brother the sister, or other prohibited persons in the Lavv: as vvel might they charge Christ and the Apostle for prohibiting the man to marrie, during his vviues life: and appointing vvidowes that serue the Church, to liue vnmaried, and not admitting a maried woman as vvel as vvidovv, nor her that hath had moe husbands, as vvel as her that hath been maried but once: as they charge the Church for not admitting maried persons to the altar, and for forcing them & Religious persons to keepe their promis of chastitie.
Catholikes esteeme matrimonie more then the Protestants doe.
No, the holy Church is so farre from condemning wedlocke, that she honoureth it much more then the Protestants, accounting it an holy Sacrament, vvhich they do not, who onely vse it to lust as the Heathen doe, and not to religion.
But it is an old deceitful practise of Heretikes to charge Catholike men vvith old condemned heresies. The Eutychians slaundered the Councel of Chalcedon and S. Leo to be Nestorians, and to make two persons in Christ, because they said there vvere tvvo natures. Vigilius li. 5. cont. Eutychen. Arius charged Alexander his Bishop of Sabellianisme, for auouching the vnitie of substance in Trinitie. Socrat. li. 1. c. 3. Iulianus accused S. Augustine of the heresie of Apollinaris. li. 5. cont. Iulian. c. 15. Other Pelagians chalenged him for condemning mariage.
The Protestants obiections answered long agoe by S. Hierom and S. Augustin.
Retrait. li. 2. c. 53. And that our Protestants bragge not to much of their goodly inuention, louinian the old Heretike, their Maister in this point, accused *the holy doctors and Catholikes vpon this same place, to be Manichees, and to condemne meates and mariage, as both S. Hierom and S. Augustine do testifie. And they both answer to the Heretike, that the Church in deede & Catholikes do abstaine from some for euer, and some for certaine daies, and euery Christian man lightly al the 40 daies of Lent fast: not for that they thinke the meates vncleane, abominable, or of an il creation, as the Manichees do: but for punishment of their bodies and taming their concupiscences. Hiero. li. 2. cont. Iouin. c. 11. Aug. cont. Adimantum c. 14. Li. de mor. Cath. Es. Hiero. in c. 4. ad Galat. And as for mariage, the said doctors answer, that no Catholike man condemneth it for vnlavvful, as the old Heretikes did, but onely preferreth virginitie and continencie before it, as a state in it self more agreable to God and more meete for the Cleargie. See S. Augustine against Faustus the Manichee li. 30 c. 5. 6. and hær. 25 in the name, Apostolici. S. Hierom ep. 50. c. 1 . & 3. Al this the Catholikes continually tel the Aduersaries, and they can not but see it. Yet by accustomed audacitie and impudencie they beare it out still.
* Aug. li. 2 c. 5 de nupt. & concupise. forbidding to marrie, to abstaine from meats which God created to receaue with thankes-giuing for the faithful, and them that haue knowen the truth.
4. For We see plainely by these words such abstinence only to be disalowed as condemneth the creatures of God to be naught by nature and creation. euery creature of God is good, and nothing to be reiected that is receiued With thankes-giuing..
Blessing of the table or of meates, specially by a Priest.
By the most ancient custom of the faithful both before Christ and sithence, men vse to blesse their table and meates, by the hand and word of a Priest, if any be present, othervvise by such as can conueniently do it. And in husbandmens houses vvhere they haue no other meanes, they should at least blesse Gods giftes and them selues vvith a Pater noster or the signe of the Crosse: not onely to acknowledge from whom they haue their continual sustenace, but also to blesse their meate and sanctifie it. For the *Greeke vvord vsed of S. Paul, by Ecclesiastical vse, vvhen it concerneth meates, signifieth not onely thankes giuing, but blessing or sanctifying the creatures to be receiued, as being al one vvith ἐυλογία, and in English vve call it grace, not onely that after meate, which is onely thankes to God, but that before meate, vvhich is alvvaies a benediction of the creatures, as it is plaine in the prescript and vsual formes of grace. For vvhich cause a Priest should euer do it rather then a lay man or any of inferior order in the Cleargie.
To blesse is a preeminence of the better person.
In so much that S. Hierom (ep. 85) reprehendeth certaine Deacons vvhom he savv say grace or blesse the meate and the companie, in the presence of a Priest. Vvho also recordeth (in the life of S. Paul the holy Eremite) the great curtesie and humilitie of him and S. Antonie, yelding one to the other the preeminence of blessing their poore dinner. For to blesse is a great thing, and a Priestly prerogatiue, as the Apostle vvitnesseth, declaring the preeminence of Melchisedec in that he blessed Abraham. **Read the note folowing.
* μετὰ εὐχαϱιςίας.
** Hebr. 7. with thankes-giuing.
5. For it is Sanctified.
No creature il by nature, yet one more sanctified then another.
Al creatures be of Gods creation, none of the Diuel, or of any other cause and beginning, as the Manichees blasphemed: and therfore none are il, abominable, or vncleane by creation, nature, and condition, but al good and made for mans vse, though al be not alike holy nor equally sanctified. God made seuen daies, but he sanctified onely one of them, he made al places, but he sanctified none but the Temple and such like deputed to his seruice, as the Arke, the altar, and the rest vvhich vvere by sacred vse both holy them selues, and gaue also holines and sanctification to things that touched them or vvere applied vnto them.
Holy times and places, & euery thing deputed to the seruice of God, holy.
So our Sauiour saith, that the Temple sanctified the gold, and the altar the gift, and generally al creatures seuered from common and profane vse, to religion and vvorship of God, are made sacred thereby. So the places and daies of Gods apparition or vvorking some special vvonders or benefites tovvard the people, vvere holy, as Bethel, Sinai, and others. And much more those times and places of Christes Natiuitie, Passion, burial, Resurrection, Ascension: vvhich is so plaine a case, that the hil vvhere he vvas transfigured onely, is called therfore by S. Peter, the holy mount.
* Mat. 23.
** 2 Pet. 1.
Creatures hallowed by the signe of the Crosse.
These therfore be holy memories and monuments of al sortes sanctified, besides that creatures (as vve see here) be sanctified also by the vvord of God and praier, that is to say, by benediction & inuocation of our Lordes holy name vpon them, specially by the signe of the Crosse, as S. Chrysostom noteth on this place, ho. 12. in 1 ad Tim. by the vvhich the aduersarie povver of Satan vsurping vniustly vpon Gods creatures through mans sinne, and seeking deceitfully in or by the same to annoy mans body or soule, is expelled, and the meates purged from him and made holesom. S. Gregoric (li. 1 Dialog. c. 4) recordeth that the Diuel entered into a certaine religious vvoman by eating the herbe lettice vnblessed.
The blessing of our meat what a vertue it hath.
And S. Augustine li. 18 de ciu. Dei c. 18. shevveth at large, vvhat vvaies he hath by meates and drinkes and other vsual creatures of God, to annoy men: though his povver be much lesse then it vvas before Christ. but still much desire he hath on al sides to molest the faithful by abusing the things most neere and necessarie vnto them, to their hurt both bodily and Ghostly. for remedie vvhereof, this sanctification vvhich the Apostle speaketh of, is very soueraine, pertaining not onely to this common and more vulgar benediction of our meates and drinkes, but much more (as the proprietie of the *Greeke vvord vsed by the Apostle for sanctification, doth import) to other more exact sanctifying and higher applying of some creatures, and blessing them to Christes honour in the Church of God, and to mans spiritual and corporal benefites.
For as S. Augustine vvriteth li. 2 de pec. merit. c. 26. besides this vsual blessing of our daily foode, the Cathecumens (that is, such as vvere taught tovvard Baptisme) are sanctified by the signe of the Crosse, and the bread (saith he) vvhich they receiue, though it be not the body of Christ, yet is holy, and more holy then the vsual bread of the table.
He meaneth a kinde of bread then halovved, specially for such as vvere not yet admitted to the B. Sacrament: either the same, or the like to our holy bread, vsed in the Church of England and France on Sundaies. And it vvas a common vse in the primitiue Church to blesse loaues, and send them for sacred tokens from one Christian man to an other. and that not among the simple and superstitious (as the Aduersaries may imagine) but among the holiest, learnedst, and vvisest. Such halovved breads did S. Paulinus send to S. Augustine and Alipius, and they to him againe, calling them blessings. Read S. Hierom in the life of Hilarion (post medium:) hovv Princes and learned Bishops & other of al sortes came to that holy man for holy bread, panem benedictum. In the primitiue Church the people commonly brought bread to the Priests to be halovved. Author op. imp. ho. 14 in Mt. The 3 Councel of Carthage cap. 24. maketh mention of the blessing of milke, honie, grapes, and corne. See the 4 Canon of the Apostles. And not onely diuers other creatures vsed at certaine times in holy Churches seruice, as vvaxe, fire, palmes, ashes, but also the holy oile, Chrisme, and the vvater of Baptisme, that also vvhich is the cheefe of al Priestly blessing of creatures, the bread and vvine in the high Sacrifice, be sanctified.
August. ep. 31, 34 35. 36.
The signe of the crosse vsed in blessing.
for vvithout sanctification, yea (as S. Augustine affirmeth tract. 118 in Ioan.) vvithout the signe of the Crosse, none of these things can rightly be done.
Can any man novv maruel that the Church of God by this vvarrant of S. Paules vvord expounded by so long practise and tradition of the first fathers of our religion, doth vse diuers elements and blesse them for mans vse and the seruice of God, expelling by the inuocation of Christes name, the aduersarie povver from them, according to the authoritie giuen by Christ, Super omnia dæmonia, ouer al Diuels: and by praier, vvhich importeth as the Apostle here speaketh, desire of help, as it vvere by the vertue of Christ to combat vvith the Diuel, and so to expel him out of Gods creatures, vvhich is done by holy exorcisme, and euer beginneth, Adiutorium nostrum in nomine Domini, as vve see in the blessing of holy vvater and the like sanctification of elements.
The Churches exorcismes.
Vvhich exorcismes, namely of children before they come to Baptisme, see in S. Augustine li. 6 cont. Iulian. c. 5. & de Ec. dogmat. c. 31. De nupt. & concupis. li. 1 c. 20. and of holy vvater, that hath been vsed these 1400 yeres in the Church by the institution of Alexander the first, in al Christian countries, and of the force thereof against Diuels, see a famous historie in Theodoret li. 5 c. 21. and in Epiphanius hær. 30 Ebionitarum. See S. Gregorie to S. Augustine our Apostle, of the vse thereof in halovving the Idolatrous temples to be made the Churches of Christ. apud Bedam li. 1 c. 30 hist. Angl. Remember hovv the Prophet Eliseus applied salt to the healing and purifying of vvaters, 4 Reg. 2: hovv the Angel Raphael vsed the liuer of the fish to driue avvay the Diuel, Tob. 6. 8: hovv Dauids harp and Psalmodie kept the euil spirit from Saul, 1 Reg. 16: hovv a peece of the holy earth saued such a mans chamber from infestation of Diuels, August. de Ciuit. dei li. 22 c. 8: how Christ him self, both in Sacraments, & out of them, occupied diuers sanctified elements, some for the health of the body, some for grace and remission of sinnes, and some to vvorke miracles by.
The force of sanctified creatures.
The holy land.
The name of IESVS.
See in S. Hierom against Vigilantius c. 2. hovv holy Relikes torment them. *In the historie of Iulianus the Apostata, hovv the signe of the Crosse: in the Actes (cap. 19) hovv the name of IESVS yea and of Paul putteth them to flight.
* Theodoret. li. 3 c. 3.
Remission of venial sinnes annexed to halovved creatures.
Furnish your selues vvith such examples and groundes of Scriptures and antiquitie, and you shal contemne the Aduersaries cauillations and blasphemies against the Churches practice in such things, and further also finde, these sacred actions and creatures, not only by increase of faith, feruor, and deuotion, to purge the impuritie of our soules, and procure remission of our daily infirmities, but that the cheefe Ministers of Christes Church, by their soueraine authoritie graunted of our Lord, may ioyne vnto the same, their blessing and remission of our venial sinnes or spiritual dettes: as vve see in S. Iames, remission of al sinnes to be annexed to the vnction vvith holy oile, vvhich to the Catholikes is a Sacrament, but to the Protestants vvas but a temporal ceremonie, and to some of them not of Christes institution, but of the Apostles onely.
Ia. c. 5.
In their ovvne sense therfore they should not maruel that such spiritual effectes should procede of the vse of sanctified creatures, vvhereas venial trespasses be remitted many vvaies, though mortal ordinarily by the Sacraments onely. S. Gregorie did commonly send his benediction and remission of sinnes, in and vvith such holy tokens as vvere sanctified by his blessing and touching of the Apostles bodies and Martyrs Relikes, as novv his successors do in the like halovved remembrances of religion. See his 7 booke, epistle 126: and 9 booke, epistle 60. Thus therfore and to the effectes aforesaid the creatures of God be sanctified.
The difference betweene the Churches exorcismes & other coniurations.
If any man obiect that this vse of creatures is like coniuration in Necromancie, he must knovv the difference is, that in the Churches sanctifications and exorcismes, the Diuels be commaunded, forced, and tormented by Christes vvord and by praiers: but in the other vvicked practises, they be pleased, honoured, and couenanted vvithal: and therfore the first is godly and according to the Scriptures, but Necromancie abominable and against the Scriptures. sanctified by the word of God and praier.
6. These things proposing to the Brethren, thou shalt be a good Minister of Christ Iesvs, nourished in the words of the faith and the good doctrine which thou hast attained vnto.
7. But foolish and old wiues fables auoid: and exercise thy self to pietie.
8. For 1. Tim. 1,4.
Some (saith S. Chrysostome) expound this of fasting, but they are deceiued: for fasting in a spiritual exercise. See a goodly commentarie of those words in S. Aug. li. de mor. Eccl. Cath. c. 33. corporal exercise is profitable to litle: but pietie is profitable to al things: hauing promise of the life that now is, and of that to come.
9. A faithful saying and worthie of al acceptation:
10. For to this purpose we labour and are reuiled, because we hope in the liuing God which is the Sauiour of al men, specially of the faithful.
11. Command these things and teach.
12. Let no man contemne thy youth: but be an example of the faithful, in word, in conuersation, in charitie, in faith, in chastitie.
13. Til I come, attend vnto reading, exhortation, and doctrine.
14. Neglect not The grace.
Grace giuen in the Sacrament of Orders.
The grace. S. Augustine declareth this grace to be the gift of the holy Ghost giuen vnto him by receiuing this holy Order, vvhereby he vvas made fitte to execute the office to his ovvne saluation and other mens. And note vvithal, that grace is not onely giuen in or vvith the Sacraments, by the receiuers faith or deuotion, but by the Sacrament, per impositionem, by imposition of handes. for so he speaketh 2 Tim. 1. Which is here said, cum impositione, vvith imposition. the grace that is in thee: which is giuen thee by prophecie, With imposition.
Consecration of Priests by imposition of handes.
S. Ambrose vpon this place, implieth in the vvord Imposition of hands, al the holy action and sacred vvordes done and spoken ouer him vvhen he vvas made Priest. Whereby (saith he) he vvas designed to the vvorke, and receiued authoritie, that he durst offer sacrifice in our Lordes steede vnto God. So doth the holy Doctor allude vnto the vvordes that are said novv also in the Catholike Church to him that is made Priest: Accipe potestatem offerendi pro viuis & mortuis in nomine Domini. that is, Take or receiue thou authoritie to offer for the liuing and the dead in the name of our Lord. for the vvhich S. Hierom also (as is noted before) saith, that the ordering of Priests is, by imposition of handes and imprecation of voice.
In Esa. c. 58. with imposition of the hands, Of Priesthood.
Holy Orders a Sacrament.
The practise of the Church giueth vs the sense of this place, vvhich the auncient Councel of Carthage doth thus set dovvne. *When a Priest taketh orders, the Bishop blessing him and holding his hand vpon his head, let al the Priests present lay also their hands on his head by the Bishops hands &c. Vvho seeth not novv, that holy Orders giuing grace by an external ceremonie and vvorke, is a Sacrament? So al the old Church counteth it. And S. Augustine (cont. ep. Parmen. li. 2. c. 13.) plainely saith that no man doubteth but it is a Sacrament. and lest any man thinke that he vseth not the vvord Sacrament proprely and precisely, he ioyneth it in nature and name vvith Baptisme. Againe vvho seeth not by this vse of imposition of hands in giuing Orders and other Sacraments, that Christ, the Apostles, and the Church may borovv of the Ievvish rites, certaine conuenient ceremonies and Sacramental actions, seing this same (**as the Heretikes can not deny) vvas receiued of the maner of Ordering Aaron and the Priests of the old lavv or other heads of the people? See Exod. 39. Num. 27, 23.
* Conc. Carth. 4 c. 3.
** Beza in cap. 6. Act. of priesthood.
15. These things doe thou meditate, be in these things: that thy profiting may be manifest to al.
16. Attend to thy self, and to doctrine: be earnest in them. For, this doing, thou shalt Saue both thy self.
Men also are called Sauiours without derogation to Christ.
Though Christ be our onely Sauiour, yet the Scriptures forbeare not to speake freely and vulgarly and in a true sense, that man also may saue him self and others. But the Protestants notvvithstanding folovv such a captious kind of Diuinitie that if a man speake any such thing of our Lady or any Sainct in heauen, or other meane of procuring saluation, they make it a derogation to Christes honour. Vvith such hypocrites haue vve novv a daies to do. saue both thy self and them that heare thee.